Sunday, June 28, 2020

What is the Value of an MBA

Poets Quants released some excellent data last week on the value of an MBA, concluding that b-school grads did very well in 2014 in regards to average salary and bonus. Here are some highlights from the article: †¢ In 2014, Harvard and Stanford grads earned average salaries that exceeded pre-recession levels for the first time. For Harvard MBAs, the average salary was $144,750, compared to $144,261 in 2008. The average salary for Stanford MBAs was $142,834, compared to 2008’s $140,771. †¢ There were a total of seven b-schools that reported average pay above $140K. Michigan Ross was one of these schools whose salary and bonus package jumped 20.9% in five years to $140,497. †¢ Washington Foster experienced a huge increase in average salary and bonuses, from $91,593 in 2010 up 36.9% to $125.367 in 2014. Average salary and bonuses also took huge leaps at Rochester Simon (30.6% from $78,083 to $101,961) and at Emory Goizueta (28.0% from $100,300 to $128,347). †¢ In 2010, only 24 U.S. business schools landed job that paid six-figures; in 2014, that number increased significantly to 44 schools. †¢ The top five schools with the most highly compensated grads were HBS, MIT Sloan, Stanford, Wharton, and Tuck. †¢ A few schools saw year-over-year decreases, including USC (from $116,011 to $114,129), Boston Carroll (from $96,915 to $94,963), and Minnesota Carlson (from $117,972 to $112,828). See the PQ article for more details. Related Resources: †¢ MBA in Sight: Focus on Finance †¢Ã‚  Does it Pay to Get an MBA? †¢Ã‚  PayScale: How Much Can You Earn, and How to Earn It?

Monday, May 25, 2020

What Is Operant Conditioning Definition and Examples

Operant conditioning occurs when an association is made between a particular behavior and a consequence for that behavior. This association is built upon the use of reinforcement and/or punishment to encourage or discourage behavior. Operant conditioning was first defined and studied by behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner, who conducted several well-known operant conditioning experiments with animal subjects. Key Takeaways: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is the process of learning through reinforcement and punishment. In operant conditioning, behaviors are strengthened or weakened based on the consequences of that behavior. Operant conditioning was defined and studied by behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner. Origins B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist, which means he believed that psychology should be limited to the study of observable behaviors. While other behaviorists, like John B. Watson, focused on classical conditioning, Skinner was more interested in the learning that happened through operant conditioning. He observed that in classical conditioning responses tend to be triggered by innate reflexes that occur automatically. He called this kind of behavior respondent. He distinguished respondent behavior from operant behavior. Operant behavior was the term Skinner used to describe a behavior that is reinforced by the consequences that follow it. Those consequences play an important role in whether or not a behavior is performed again. Skinner’s ideas were based on Edward Thorndike’s law of effect, which stated that behavior that elicits positive consequences will probably be repeated, while behavior that elicits negative consequences will probably not be repeated. Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement into Thorndike’s ideas, specifying that behavior that is reinforced will probably be repeated (or strengthened). To study operant conditioning, Skinner conducted experiments using a â€Å"Skinner Box,† a small box that had a lever at one end that would provide food or water when pressed. An animal, like a pigeon or rat, was placed in the box where it was free to move around. Eventually the animal would press the lever and be rewarded. Skinner found that this process resulted in the animal pressing the lever more frequently. Skinner would measure learning by tracking the rate of the animal’s responses when those responses were reinforced. Reinforcement and Punishment Through his experiments, Skinner identified the different kinds of reinforcement and punishment that encourage or discourage behavior. Reinforcement Reinforcement that closely follows a behavior will encourage and strengthen that behavior. There are two types of reinforcement: Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior results in a favorable outcome, e.g. a dog receiving a treat after obeying a command, or a student receiving a compliment from the teacher after behaving well in class. These techniques increase the likelihood that the individual will repeat the desired behavior in order to receive the reward again.Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior results in the removal of an unfavorable experience, e.g. an experimenter ceasing to give a monkey electric shocks when the monkey presses a certain lever. In this case, the lever-pressing behavior is reinforced because the monkey will want to remove the unfavorable electric shocks again. In addition, Skinner identified two different kinds of reinforcers. Primary reinforcers naturally reinforce behavior because they are innately desirable, e.g. food.Conditioned reinforcers reinforce behavior not because they are innately desirable, but because we learn to associate them with primary reinforcers. For example, Paper money is not innately desirable, but it can be used to acquire innately desirable goods, such as food and shelter. Punishment Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement. When punishment follows a behavior, it discourages and weakens that behavior. There are two kinds of punishment. Positive punishment (or punishment by application) occurs when a behavior is followed by an unfavorable outcome, e.g. a parent spanking a child after the child uses a curse word.Negative punishment (or punishment by removal) occurs when a behavior leads to the removal of something favorable, e.g. a parent who denies a child their weekly allowance because the child has misbehaved. Although punishment is still widely used, Skinner and many other researchers found that punishment is not always effective. Punishment can suppress a behavior for a time, but the undesired behavior tends to come back in the long run. Punishment can also have unwanted side effects. For example, a child who is punished by a teacher may become uncertain and fearful because they don’t know exactly what to do to avoid future punishments. Instead of punishment, Skinner and others suggested reinforcing desired behaviors and ignoring unwanted behaviors. Reinforcement tells an individual what behavior is desired, while punishment only tells the individual what behavior isn’t desired. Behavior Shaping Operant conditioning can lead to increasingly complex behaviors through shaping, also referred to as the â€Å"method of approximations.† Shaping happens in a step-by-step fashion as each part of a more intricate behavior is reinforced. Shaping starts by reinforcing the first part of the behavior. Once that piece of the behavior is mastered, reinforcement only happens when the second part of the behavior occurs. This pattern of reinforcement is continued until the entire behavior is mastered. For example, when a child is taught to swim, she may initially be praised just for getting in the water. She is praised again when she learns to kick, and again when she learns specific arm strokes. Finally, she is praised for propelling herself through the water by performing a specific stroke and kicking at the same time. Through this process, an entire behavior has been shaped.   Schedules of Reinforcement In the real world, behavior is not constantly reinforced. Skinner found that the frequency of reinforcement can impact how quickly and how successfully one learns a new behavior. He specified several reinforcement schedules, each with different timing and frequencies. Continuous reinforcement occurs when a particular response follows each and every performance of a given behavior. Learning happens rapidly with continuous reinforcement. However, if reinforcement is stopped, the behavior will quickly decline and ultimately stop altogether, which is referred to as extinction.Fixed-ratio schedules reward behavior after a specified number of responses. For example, a child may get a star after every fifth chore they complete. On this schedule, the response rate slows right after the reward is delivered.Variable-ratio schedules vary the number of behaviors required to get a reward. This schedule leads to a high rate of responses and is also hard to extinguish because its variability maintains the behavior. Slot machines use this kind of reinforcement schedule.Fixed-interval schedules provide a reward after a specific amount of time passes. Getting paid by the hour is one example of this kind of reinforcement schedule. Much like the fixed-ratio schedule, the response rate increases as the reward approaches but slows down right after the reward is received.Variable-interval schedules vary the amount of time between rewards. For example, a child who receives an allowance at various times during the week as long as they’ve exhibited some positive behaviors is on a variable-interval schedule. The child will continue to exhibit positive behavior in anticipation of eventually receiving their allowance. Examples of Operant Conditioning If you’ve ever trained a pet or taught a child, you have likely used operant conditioning in your own life. Operant conditioning is still frequently used in various real-world circumstances, including in the classroom and in therapeutic settings. For example, a teacher might reinforce students doing their homework regularly by periodically giving pop quizzes that ask questions similar to recent homework assignments. Also, if a child throws a temper tantrum to get attention, the parent can ignore the behavior and then acknowledge the child again once the tantrum has ended. Operant conditioning is also used in behavior modification, an approach to the treatment of numerous issues in adults and children, including phobias, anxiety, bedwetting, and many others. One way behavior modification can be implemented is through a token economy, in which desired behaviors are reinforced by tokens in the form of digital badges, buttons, chips, stickers, or other objects. Eventually these tokens can be exchanged for real rewards. Critiques While operant conditioning can explain many behaviors and is still widely used, there are several criticisms of the process. First, operant conditioning is accused of being an incomplete explanation for learning because it neglects the role of biological and cognitive elements. In addition, operant conditioning is reliant upon an authority figure to reinforce behavior and ignores the role of curiosity and an individuals ability to make his or her own discoveries. Critics object to operant conditionings emphasis on controlling and manipulating behavior, arguing that they can lead to authoritarian practices. Skinner believed that environments naturally control behavior, however, and that people can choose to use that knowledge for good or ill. Finally, because Skinner’s observations about operant conditioning relied on experiments with animals, he is criticized for extrapolating from his animal studies to make predictions about human behavior. Some psychologists believe this kind of generalization is flawed because humans and non-human animals are physically and cognitively different. Sources Cherry, Kendra. â€Å"What is Operant Conditioning and How Does it Work?† Verywell Mind, 2 October 2018. https://www.verywellmind.com/operant-conditioning-a2-2794863Crain, William. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. 5th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall. 2005.Goldman, Jason G. â€Å"What is Operant Conditioning? (And How Does It Explain Driving Dogs?)† Scientific American, 13 December 2012. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/thoughtful-animal/what-is-operant-conditioning-and-how-does-it-explain-driving-dogs/McLeod, Saul. â€Å"Skinner – Operant Conditioning.† Simply Psychology, 21 January 2018. https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html#class

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

College Interview Tips Tell Me About a Challenge You Overcame

A college admissions officer wants to know how youll handle adversity because your college career will invariably be filled with challenges that youll need to overcome. The question isnt a hard one as long as youve put a bit of thought into your answer before your interview. Realize that you can draw from many different kinds of challenges when you answer this question. You dont need to have lived a life of adversity or oppression to have a meaningful challenge to discuss. Your first step is to figure out which challenge you want to share with your interviewer. Its wise to shy away from anything thats too personal—you dont want your interviewer to feel uncomfortable. But an appropriate challenge can come in many forms. Academic Challenge If  you struggled, but ultimately succeeded, in a specific class, you might find this to be a perfect topic to discuss during your college admissions interview. Other academic challenges include the demands of balancing schoolwork with a demanding role as the lead in a play or captain of the basketball team. An academic challenge is one of the more predictable responses to this question, but it is perfectly appropriate. After all, dealing with academic challenges will be relevant when you are in college. Challenge at Work The way you deal with difficult people says a lot about you and gives your interviewer a glimpse into your ability to deal with an annoying roommate or a demanding professor. If youve had a challenging experience with a boss or customer at work, you might consider discussing how you persevered through this situation with your interviewer. Make sure your answer here presents you in a good light—pouring hot coffee in an annoying customers lap or telling off your boss isnt the type of response that an admissions officer will look upon favorably. Athletic Challenge If youre an athlete, you likely had to work hard to improve your skills and succeed in your sport. Was there an aspect of your sport that didnt come easily to you? Did you overcome a physical problem to excel in your sport? These are great topics to discuss during your interview. Alternatively, you could talk about a specific competition that was especially challenging. Just frame your answer to reveal your problem-solving abilities. You dont want to come across as bragging about your athletic accomplishments. Personal Tragedy Many challenges are personal. If you have lost someone close to you or had problems due to an accident, youve likely suffered from the distraction. If you decide to discuss this topic with your interviewer, try to center the conversation on the steps you took to eventually move on and grow from the painful experience. Personal Goal Did you set a goal for yourself that was tough to accomplish? Whether you pushed yourself to run a six-minute mile or write 50,000 words for National Novel Writing Month, this can serve as a good response to the challenge-you-overcame question. Explain to your interviewer why you set your particular goal and how you went about reaching it. Ethical Dilemma An ethical dilemma is a situation in which you must decide between two options, neither of which is clearly the greater moral choice. If you have been in a position where none of your options were attractive, you might consider discussing this situation with your interviewer. By providing background information, sharing how you handled the situation, and detailing the factors you considered in finding a solution, you can showcase your problem-solving abilities and moral compass to your interviewer. Realize that your solution to the challenge does not need to be heroic or absolute. Many challenges have solutions that arent 100 percent ideal for all parties involved, and there is nothing wrong with discussing this reality with your interviewer. In fact, revealing that you understand the complexity of certain issues could play well during your interview as it may highlight your maturity and thoughtfulness. Formulating Your Response When describing the challenge in your interview, begin with a brief summary of the challenge itself. Explain to the interviewer any necessary context so that she can understand the circumstances you faced. Keep this part of your response brief, as you should focus the conversation on the process of overcoming the challenge rather than the initial struggle. To transition from the challenge to the process of overcoming it, take the interviewer through your thought process. Identify the different options that were available to you and how you arrived at your decision. A Final Word As you prepare for the interview, keep the purpose of this type of question in mind. The interviewer isnt necessarily interested in hearing about some horror story from your past. Rather, the question is designed to help the interviewer discover what type of problem solver you are. College is all about developing critical-thinking and ​problem-solving skills, so the interviewer wants to see whether you show promise in these areas. When confronted with a challenge, how do you respond? The best answer will highlight your ability to navigate a challenging situation.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Romeo s Symptoms And Report - 1149 Words

Based on Romeo’s symptoms and report, Romeo’s DSM-5 diagnosis is: 303. 90 (F10.20, ICD-10 coding) Alcohol Use Disorder, moderate. 291.89 (F10.24, ICD-10 coding) Alcohol Induced Depressive Disorder, moderate (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based on Juliette’s symptoms and report, Juliette’s DSM 5 diagnosis is: 309. 81 (F43.10, ICD-10 coding) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. 302.72 (F52.22, ICD-10 coding) Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder. V15.42 Personal history of neglect in childhood. V61.03 Disruption of family by divorce. V65.40 Other counseling or consultation (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Objectives When asked, Romeo stated that his goal for treatment is that Juliette would leave him alone. Juliette shared that her goal of treatment is for Romeo to stop drinking. Based on the couple’s report and desire for treatment, the goal of treatment for the couple is to create clear boundaries between the couple, and to stop the consumption of alcohol by Romeo. In order to achieve the goal of treatment, the objectives of treatment are the following: Romeo will decrease his alcohol consumption from six bottles of beer every day to drinking one bottle of beer once a week; Juliette will allow Romeo to have a time for himself for an hour every day, if possible; Romeo and Juliette will learn at least two coping skills to create clear boundaries between them, the couple will be assisted to build an agreement of appropriate behaviors that each individual shouldShow MoreRelatedInternal Scars Of A Child1260 Words   |  6 Pagesdiminish sense of self identity, dignity or worth (Tracy). In r egards to an educational setting an educator needs to know the signs of emotional abuse, how to report emotional abuse in a school setting, and the later effects a child with emotional abuse has. Children who are emotionally abused at home will either display passive or aggressive symptoms when in a setting that is outside of the abuse such as a school environment. 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The EW working group, when established, is responsible to the G-3 or S-3 through the mission command cell. An EW working group usually includes representation from across the staff. The EW working groups facilitate the internal (Army) and external (joint) integration, synchronization, and deconfliction of EW actions withRead MoreThe Ballad of the Sad Cafe46714 Words   |  187 PagesThe Ballad of the Sad Cafà © and Other Stories by Carson McCullers Back Cover: When she was only twenty-three her first novel, The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter, created a literary sensation. She is very special, one of America s superlative writers who conjures up a vision of existence as terrible as it is real, who takes us on shattering voyages into the depths of the spiritual isolation that underlies the human condition. A grotesque human triangle in a primitive Southern town. . . 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The true protagonists of Sir Gawain and the green knight...

The true protagonists of Sir Gawain and the green knight What is the most representative element to the stories of King Arthur and his knights of rounds? Most of people may say that courtly love and chivalry of the knights. The story of Sir Gawain and the green knight may not be different with other stories. The reason can be the story also ended with praising the chivalry of Gawain. The heroic protagonist face with the antic villain with magic and finally, he survive from that trouble. It can be just read into the typical heroic story. However, when looking in deeply, there are some vague points that this story theme can be just chivalry of the knights. Though the pride of Gawain was broken so much, the story just ended with praise the†¦show more content†¦But, the definite solution of this panic was the King Arthur’s word to Guinevere, â€Å"Dear lady, don’t be daunted by this deed today,/ it’s in keeping that such strangeness should occur at Christmas/ between sessions of banter and seasonal song,/ amid th e lively pastimes of ladies and lords† (470-73). The king Arthur’s single comment for relaxing Guinevere also relaxes the whole atmosphere of the court. Though Guinevere is described as weak character, but she was the very important character for symbolize the great stability of King Arthur’s court. On the other hand, interestingly, the description of the lady of lord Bertilak is almost same with Guinevere, â€Å"tapestries from Toulouse and Turkistan/ were fixed against walls and fitted underfoot† (858-59). The same tapestries that Guinevere had been hang in Gawain’s room and tempted by the lady described as, â€Å"more glorious than Guinevere† (945). Even some critic says, â€Å"Lady is in fact a second Guinevere, albeit in the guise of the false Guinevere† (Heng 502). That may signs that the lady also has the role that symbols the nobility of Bertilak’s court. Furthermore, she was much more active woman than Guinevere. When s he faced with Gawain, â€Å"She who desired to see this stranger/ came from her closet with her sisterly crew†(941-42). In the ordinary stories about courtly romance, a knight’s interest to a lady was described. But, in this case, the way for description is reversed.Show MoreRelatedThe Metrics Of English Literature4721 Words   |  19 Pagesprovides structure and order while creativity invokes discovery and development of new meaning of the English language. Fred: Well Joseph, what is your opinion on this? Joseph: In much respect to this artistic opinion, the development of the English language is more than simply creative writing. History has integrated itself into the language, not to mention the most influential factor in shaping language: society itself. It is to be expected that an everyday language changes throughout history. I mean

The Issue Of Public Nuisance - 1728 Words

Q2 TAPC have been instructed by Riverside College to demolish a derelict building and replace with the construct of the Dunn building on a section on land within the college campus. A crà ¨che in the local vicinity of the build are worried about the potential nuisance that will be causes when the building work been carried out. There are two types of nuisance, the first is public nuisance which is a crime and could also be a tort law. This is where a person or company threatens the health and safety of a community by the actions they carry out. If found guilty of breaking there duty of care they could face prison or a fine, in some cases they can receive both. The affected parties can also claim for damages but must be able to prove damages and foreseeable harm. The second is a private nuisance which is a tort law only, this is where a person or company interferes in a person’s enjoyment of land. A statutory nuisance can be anything from dust, noise, smells anything that can affect the health of people in a particular locality. If the person or company breaks there duty of care then they can be liable for damages. The claimant must have an interest in land and must also prove damages and foreseeable in order to successful be rewarded damages. The Legal authority has a legal duty to investigate any complaints about nuisance. If the Legal authority finds a nuisance then they must issue court proceedings to the polluter. If the polluter is proven to be causing a nuisanceShow MoreRelatedLaw 310 Case Study Simulaiton1228 Words   |  5 PagesSimulation: Environmental Nuisance Lawsuit LAWS310 December 14, 2011 Factual Summary: Provide a succinct and accurate description of the scenario at hand. Summarize the scenario to include all relevant facts. 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Lord of the Flies Jack Essay Example For Students

Lord of the Flies Jack Essay At the start of the novel, there has been an atomic explosion, and the children have been evacuated in an aircraft with a detachable passenger tube. The aircraft has been attacked and released the tube while flying over tropical seas. The tube has crash landed in the jungle of a tropical island, and the plane has flown off in flames. This is the point when the novel starts. There are four main characters in the book ? Ralph, Piggy, Jack and Simon. Simon is part of the choir, which is led by Jack, but Ralph and Piggy are not members of the choir, and are in no way related. There are no adults ? There aren? any grown ups P. 43 Ralph has found a conch P. 21, and has used it to call all the boys on the island together. This is where Jack is introduced into Lord of the Flies Something dark was fumbling along P. 26. This refers to the choir walking along the beach in the distance. This use of language shows us that the choir is dark, evil, and sinister, and immediately Golding tells us that this group will not be a good force on the island. The choir are a militaristic group ? marching approximately? with a hambone frill P. 26. This shows us that their leader is in total control of the group. This leader is Jack ? The boy who controlled them? his cap badge was golden P. 26 This shows the authority and status that Jack has over the choir. When the choir reach the platform, Jack shows off ? swaying in the fierce light? his cloak flying P. 27. This is an attempt to impress the group, create a good impression, enough so he commands their respect as well as the choirs? , enough so that he can eventually control them as well as the choir. Jack does not introduce himself to everyone; he first words to the group are Where? s the man with the trumpet? P. 27. He just gives out demands, and expects the group to answer him. This is what he is used to. Jack is a direct contrast with Ralph ? peered down at Ralph? the conch did not seem to satisfy him P. 27 This shows us that he believes no-one is as good a leader as him, and that the conch, which called the group together, is below him. This is simple arrogance P. 29 on the part of Jack. He uses his cloak as a prop ? Inside the floating cloak he was tall, thin, and bony P. 27. He uses the cloak a sign of power to make him into something he? s not, he uses it to gain authority. His hair was red beneath the black cap P. 27. The colour of his hair shows signs of a fiery temper, and the colour of his cap reinforces his sinister side. Jacks main aim of the assemblies in the novel are to first become chief, and then control the group. He says on page twenty-nine with simple arrogance, I ought to be chief. Jack believes that no-one else has the right to control him, and he should be in control of everyone. During the assemblies, he rejects Piggy ? Shut up, Fatty P. 28. He has no respect for Piggy due to his appearance, even though Piggy could be a very useful asset to the group. He takes control of the assembly ? We? ve got to? P. 29. Jack does this because he wants to decide and be in control of what the group does. When the boys on the island say they want to vote on a chief, Jack started to protest P. 30. This is because Jack knows that he is not in control of the boys on the island who are not in the choir, which is the majority, and therefore they will not vote for him. He also believes that he should be proclaimed the leader of the group without voting, because in his opinion, no-one has the right to be in control of him. This is because he is a natural leader, and has never been in a position without control. This is born out when Ralph is voted chief ? and the freckles? a blush of mortification P. 30. Jack is very embarrassed when he is, for the first time in his life, not in total control. Jack? s personality makes him use violence to command respect ? Jack snatched from behind him a sizeable sheath-knife and clouted it into a trunk P. 32, Jack slammed his knife into a trunk and looked round challengingly P. 43. The Story of the Door EssayThis shows the determined and fearless image Jack has created for himself. After the fear of the beast has started to dismantle the civilized force inside the group, Jack looks for someone to blame ? the littluns ? You littluns started all this? P. 103. He again repeats that there is no beast, but maybe at this stage of the novel, he is a little less sure than on page fourty-eight. Jack uses the fear in the group to make himself look good. After he repeats I? ve been all over this island? there is no beast in the forest P. 104, the whole assembly applauded him P. 104. Jack had used the beast to his advantage, to gain status. He still remains defiant, even after it has been claimed that the beast comes from the sea, that if there is a beast, we? ll hunt it down P. 114. As I have already pointed out, Jack is obsessed with hunting, and his preoccupation with it has increased ever since he was introduced into the novel. Everything he sees on the island he links with hunting. He sees the fire as a way to cook meat P. 92, hunted by himself. When he hears about the beast, he says he will hunt it and kill P. 48. The major changes in his identity occur, however, in chapters three and four. He has become animalistic, like a dog ? his nose only a few inches from the humid earth? dog-like bolting he became a furtive thing, ape-like. P. 61-2. His physical characteristics have changed ? His hair, longer? peeling sunburn? he was naked P. 61. He has changed his image from a choirboy to a furtive hunter. He has become primitive P. 62. His eyes give away his inner-self, a mad animal ? eyes that in this frustration seemed bolting and nearly mad. P. 62. He is on the edge ? The madness came into his eyes? rage? compulsion P. 65. He has become a physical hunter swung? urled? strength? hard? castanet? seductive? maddening? rushed? snatched P. 63. Jack is totally taken with hunting, for when he tries to describe hunting o page sixty-seven, he is unable to describe the excitement he feels for it ? That? s how you can feel, He flushed suddenly P. 67. Jack has become so obsessed with hunting, that he has forgotten about being rescued ? Jack had to think for a moment before he could remember what rescue was. P. 67. As he becomes more and more primitive, his grasp on civilization weakens, and eventually dies. By smearing his face ? He smeared on the clay P. 79, he covers up the old Jack, and replaces him with an awesome stranger P. 80. The mask covers up Jacks face, and gives something for Jack to hide behind ? the mask? behind which Jack hid P. 80. This shows that Jack wants to give himself this awesome new identity in order to gain more control and power, and to start the formation of a tribe, which can hunt. When Jack eventually kills a pig on page eighty-six, he is terribly excited ? There were lashings of blood. P. 86. He is happy to recite the horrific details, he is proud of the kill. This is a syntax, and we can cross reference it to page fourty-one, where Jack lets a pig escape because of the thought of cutting into living flesh? the unbearable blood. P. 41. When Jack is introduced into the novel, we recognize him as an organised natural leader with evil potential. Over the first five chapters of the book, this is born out in his transformation from a choirboy to a fearless, furtive hunter. His priority has changed from being rescued to hunting and killing pigs. He has become less and less civilized, until his appearance becomes one of a tribal nature.